By Cat Gina Cole

AXIS: A plant stem; more generally the line of growth of a stem or any of its branching parts that carry flowers, other branches or leaves.

AXIL: The upper angle between a bract, and the stem on which it grows, hence axillary flower or bud. See bract.

ACHENE: A small dry, nut-like, one seeded fruit that does not split open when ripe to release the seed, it can be winged like maple seeds, or caraway seeds.

ASCENDING: Something that is curving upwards.

BASAL: These are the leaves growing at the base of a stem.

BIPINNATE: A leaf that is twice pinnate i.e., a pinnately divided leaf whose leaflets are themselves pinnately divided. See Pinnate below.

BRACT: A small leaf or scale like structure from the axil of which a flower often rises.

COMPOUND LEAF: A leaf divided into two or more leaflets; applied to a leaf or flower cluster with a branched main axis.

DESIDUOUS; Are trees and shrubs that shed leaves at the end of the growing season.

DIVIDED: Separated towards the mid rib or base.

ELIPTICAL: leaves that are oval and somewhat pointed at each end.

FEATHERY: Leaves that are cut into many fine segments.

FURROWED: Leaves or stems with longitudinal channels or grooves.

GLOBOSE: Items that are spherical. This term is usually applied to a fruit or seed.

LATTERAL: Alongside or situated at the side.

LEAF AXIL: A leave axil is situated between the leaf and the stem.

LEAFLET: Is a subdivision of a compound leaf.

LINEAR: Leaves that are long and narrow, and almost parallel sided.

LINEAR- LANCEOLATE: Leaves that are long and narrow but tapering to a point at the tip.

LOBED: Leaves that are divided toward the mid-rib but not into separate leaflets, each division is rounded at the apex, similar to an oak leaf.

LATEX: A milky fluid produced by several kinds of plants such as poppy, milk weed, or rubber plant.

MARGIN: The outside edge of leaf or seed.

MID-RIB: The central vein of a leaf, usually thickened and conspicuous.

NODE: A point on a stem where one or more leaves grow or have grown; the part of the stem between the nodes is called an internode.

OBOVATE: Describes a leaf that is oval, with the end farthest from the stalk being wider than the end attached to the stem; egg shaped, also called OVATE.

OPPOSITE: Leaves growing in pairs at the same level on opposite sides of the stem.

PALMATE: Describes a leaf that has the shape of a hand, with fingers radiating from the palm; comprising more than three leaflets arising from the same point, like a pot leaf.

PETIOLE: The stalk of the leaf.

PINNATE: Leaves that have the structure of a feather, in that similar parts occur on opposite sides of an axis. A pinnate leaf is divided into numerous leaflets that grow along either side of the leaf stalk and have their own stalk which is a petiole.

RAY FLOWER: A flower with petals that edge a central disc, such as sunflowers and daisies.

RHIZOME: A creeping, usually horizontal underground storage stem, which sends up leafy shoots each season, like ferns and some grasses.

SESSILE: A stalk-less flower or leaf that has no petiole.

SIMPLE: Leaves not divided into leaflets of stems and are unbranched.

SPREADING: Plant parts that are standing out horizontally or at a wide angle from the stem.

SHEATH: The lower part of the leaf enveloping the stem or stalk, similar to the sheath on a green salad onion.

TERMINAL: A leaf at the end of a stalk or stem or branch that limits further growth on that stem.

UMBEL: An umbrella- shaped flower in which all the flowers and the secondary umbels are borne on stalks(rays) which are equal length and arise from a common point, like hemlock and wild carrot.

VEIN: The passageway for water and nutrients to travel to and from a leaf, it is also the mechanical support system.

WING: The lateral petals in certain flowers like the pea family or the membranous outgrowth on the sides of certain seeds and stems.